Middelalderens bibliotek på Trondenes

Hvordan referere

Bergesen, Rognald Heiseldal. 2013. «Middelalderens Bibliotek På Trondenes». Collegium Medievale 26 (november). Oslo, Norge. https://ojs.novus.no/index.php/CM/article/view/19.


Before the Reformation, there was at significant collection of books in the North Norwegian parish Church at Trondenes (Fig. 1). Located in a rich maritime fishing district about 300 kilometres north of the polar circle, it was the northernmost catholic stone church in the world. Served by 6-9 priests reading masses and singing the Holy Office, it was also the only collegiate church in the vast region of Southern Troms, an area comprising more than 2000 square kilometres, and thirteen chapels. The chancel at Trondenes was one of the largest in Norway, and the church was equipped with fourteen choir stalls, eight altars and at least seven reredoses (Fig. 2). Book collections in such churches were usually larger and more elaborate than in ordinary parish churches. The number of books in the library at Trondenes is not known, but several sources give substantial glimpses into the compound of the collection at different points in time. At the National Library in Oslo are preserved one fragment from an antiphonal and five volumes from three different printed books, all originally from Trondenes. Six medieval or early modern documents give further information about medieval book titles from the Trondenes Library. Previously these sources have never been compared. In the article this material is discussed in order to illuminate distinctive features of the book collection related to chronology and the functions of the church. The functions considered are not only related to liturgy, but also to canon law, collecting tithe, and education of priests. The collection consisted of liturgical books, library books and canon law. According to the preserved material, the collection appears to have changed its character from the thirteenth to the sixteenth century. In the former, the collection consisted only of liturgical books; the known books from the period are one missal, one obituary book and the antiphonal of which there is one preserved fragment dated to the end of the thirteenths century (NB Ms.lat.fragm. 11). In the sixteenth century, the collection was complemented with several library books, of which five volumes have been preserved. These are two printed versions of the Postillae perpetuae by Nicholas of Lyra (Pal 61 and Pal 68), and one version of the Bible (Pal 65). The title Summa Theologica Moralis by Antonini Florentini is also known from Trondenes. There might have been canon law books in the church from as early as the fourteenth century. The occurrence of the antiphonal and the obituary book indicate that the collection of liturgical literature at Trondenes before the Black Death was more elaborate than in ordinary parish churches. Obituary books mostly seem to have occurred in larger churches. Antiphonals were primarily made for several singers; indeed a parish priest in a small parish church was obligated to recite the office, but he did not have to sing it. Thus he would not need any antiphonal, only a breviary. Consequently the antiphonal at Trondenes may signify a choir consisting of several priests in the church as early as the thirteenth century. That is long before 1465, when the choir stalls at Trondenes were produced. Yet English evidence suggests that also smaller churches in Norway owned antiphonals. In England every church, big or small, was supposed to own an example. To the extent that English conditions are applicable to Norwegian reality, this is weakening the assumption of a priest choir at Trondenes in the thirteenth century. - The canon law dealt among other things with matters concerning disputes about benefices, tithes and all disputes involving clerics. The local canon law of the diocese at Nidaros was adapted to the specific arctic conditions of Northern Norway relating to climate, long distances and the specific economic base of the region. In the sixteenth century Trondenes was the wealthiest canonry of Norway. It was the scene of a multitude of transactions between fishermen, farmers, local magnates and the representatives of both the bishop and the king. The local canon law must have been a necessary tool dealing with the management of the economic resources and other interests of the church in the district. These matters are also some of the subjects of the Summa Theologica Moralis by Antoninus Florentinus, which among other things discusses moral aspect of banking and drawing up contracts.The library books at Trondenes indicate that the collegiate was a local knowledge centre that might have had a function in the training of priests in the diocese. Summa Theologica Moralis was originally written to provide better training of priests in Florence; it's functions could have been similar at Trondenes. The Postillae perpetuae had an analytic structure that demanded an academic and insightful approach. Every sentence of the bible was accompanied by an exegetic commentary by Lyra and Glossa ordinaria. Probably both books formed a part of a bigger compound of theological books at the library. Together with the priests who mastered skills in reading and writing, theology, liturgy and law, the books contributed to make Trondenes a considerable local resource.
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