Collegium Medievale 2022-01-18T13:04:49+00:00 Bjørn Bandlien Open Journal Systems <p>Tidsskriftet <em>Collegium Medievale</em> er et forum for alle som er engasjert i forskning på områdene Middelalderen eller Renessansen. Ett nummer publiseres årlig. Tidsskriftet utgis av Collegium Medievale: Forening for middelalderforskere i samarbeid med Novus forlag, Oslo, Norge. Foreningen hører hjemme på Det humanistiske fakultet ved Universitetet i Oslo, men opptar også medlemmer fra andre norske eller utenlandske forskningsmiljøer.</p> Medieval Oslo: A Case for the Defence 2022-01-17T16:15:56+00:00 Michael Derrick <p>In 1993 Erik Schia uncovered the remains of a large ditch (Schia 1993). This was the start of an investigation which would culminate in the discovery of the fragmented remains of a moat, 25 meters east of Kongsgården's walls (Derrick 2018; Hegdal 2021). This suggested that the defensive landscape around Kongsgården (the royal manor house) was likely to have been much more complex than previously thought. In this article I will attempt to reconnect Kongsgården with the medieval town based upon the discovery of the moat. I will present and discuss the fragmented remains and explore the theory that it was indeed part of a larger system of defences around Kongsgården. I will show that it is possible to detect the original footprint of the moat by reassessing earlier archaeological evidence and combining this with the new evidence found by NIKU, Norwegian Institute for Cultural Heritage Research. I intend to show that the moat was part of a final phase of defensive rebuilding around Kongsgården in the mid-thirteenth century and that it was abandoned in the late thirteenth-century as the defences of Oslo were shifted from Kongsgården to Akershus, the king's newly constructed fortress. By comparing Kongsgården's defences with other Norwegian parallels I hope to show that Oslo's defences followed a blueprint already in place in other towns and that geography dictated how these defences were constructed. In addition, I will show that there was a shift in land use after the moat's abandonment sometime during the early to mid-fourteenth century.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Michael Derrick Ikke-agrare økonomiske virksomheter - viktige ledd i middelalderens økonomi 2022-01-18T09:30:14+00:00 Irmelin Martens <p>Non-agrarian economic activities in the Norwegian Middle Ages. Were they free of conflicts? The author's starting point is the publication "Conflicts in the Middle Ages" where she finds that hardly any attention was paid to economic factors. Archaeological investigations during many years have revealed varied and comprehensive non-agrarian activities from the late 10th century onwards, increasing in the eleventh and twelfth and decreasing from the thirteenth century. The social elite, including the Roman Catholic Church was in great need to secure their supplies of strategic commodities, exemplified here by ship- building. The activities are briefly described: Iron extraction; stone-quarrying; large-scale hunting of reindeer and elk/moose, which may be traced in archaeological findings, while other preys like deer, seals and fur-bearing animals have hardly left any recognisable traces. The activities were organised in different ways, and they have influenced both the economy and organisation of society. Landowners with the rights to exploitation were frequently elite members of society or clerical institutions. Medieval history will benefit much from including the non-agrarian activities into general research.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Irmelin Martens Nidarosnettverket 2022-01-18T09:35:17+00:00 Steinar Imsen <p>This article is about the relationship between the metropolitan see of Nidaros (Trondheim) and the insular bishoprics Hólar and Skálholt in Iceland, Greenland, the Orkneys, the Faroes, and Sodor. The underlying question is how archbishops located at the northern fringes of Latin Christendom for centuries were able to uphold metropolitan authority over these distant dioceses. By means of the network-metaphor the author will highlight the bonds which tied the suffragan bishops overseas to the church-leadership in Norway. What bonds are we talking about, and how strong were they? Did relations between the metropolitan see and the subordinated bishoprics vary, and how far did relationships within the Nidaros province change from the beginning in the middle of the twelfth century to the end in the early 1500s? And finally, how did the changes affect the Nidaros Church?</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Steinar Imsen Dating Medieval Roman Alphabet Inscriptions - An Example from Hallvard's Cathedral in Oslo 2022-01-18T09:38:59+00:00 Johan Bollaert <p>In order for Roman alphabet inscriptions to be useful primary sources for historical, linguistic or other research, it is important that they are dated. Moreover, the user of these inscriptions should be able to judge the quality, i.e., the certainty, or uncertainty of the proposed dates. Several criteria for dating Roman alphabet inscriptions are presented, based on my cataloguing work in the project "Between Runes and Manuscripts". These are applied on Guðrun's gravestone from Hallvard's Cathedral in Oslo. Øystein Ekroll and Bent Lange have previously dated this gravestone to c. 1200, however, I argue that the inscription should be dated to the fourteenth century.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Johan Bollaert Den tidlige kirkeorganisasjonen i Stavanger stift 2022-01-18T09:42:04+00:00 Frode Iversen Jan Brendalsmo <p>In this article, we present a new interpretation of the early medieval Church organisation in Stavanger diocese, South-Eastern Norway. By merging parts of two dioceses, Selja in the west and Vik in the east (the two primary dioceses in Norway), Stavanger diocese is establish c. 1103-1123. We focus on the development and identification of the early public churches in this area. Based on various criteria, such as bishop's itineraries, size of choir, presence of dean, spread of landed property (mensa), and co-location and nearness to thing-sites, we identify for the first time the fylkiskirkur in the diocese, the fjórðungskirkiur in Rogaland and other public churches on lower levels in Rogaland, Nord-Agder and Valdres. In the twelfth century, there were three kinds of "public" churches in the western part of the diocese: the fylkiskirkja ('county church'), the fjórðungskirkja ('quarter church') and the attungskirkja ('eight church'), in addition to private churches called høgendiskirkiur ('convenience-churches'). While the eastern part included only the fylkiskirkja and the heraðskirkja (both public), in addition to private churches. In the thirteenth century a more homogenous church-system emerge, with hovedkirker ('main churches') and subordinate annekskirker (parish-churches, including former private churches). Overall, the early public church organisation seem based on civil subdivisions of the fylki. It connects closely to the various levels of judicial districts (þing, assemblies). The rural deanery (Norw. prosti), which was an ecclesiastical rather than a civil division, developed from one of these civil subdivisions, the fjórðung. However, the thirteenth-century formation of the lower ecclesiastical units (prestegjeld and sogn) followed its own course detached from older civil divisions. In Rogaland and Nord-Agder, the fylkiskirkur were located relatively far north in their counties. This applies to Avaldsnes or possibly Hesby, Mariakirken in Stavanger and Vanse. The location may have been adapted to the bishop's travels from the north (Selja). We propose Tromøy c. 1100 as the fylkiskirkja in Aust-Agder, Vik diocese, before the incorporation into Stavanger diocese. Later, Landvik church (built in first half of the twelfth century) may have taken its role as fylkiskirkja. The bishop of Stavanger seems to have preferred a church more central to Aust-Agder as fylkiskirkja. Landvik retained its high status until Agder divides into three deaneries c. 1400. Øyestad and Halså now became the foremost central churches, while Vanse shows continuity throughout the Middle Ages. Further, we identify Slidre as fylkiskirkja in Valdres, Torpo in Hallingdal and Bygland in Råbyggelag.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Iversen & Brendalsmo Estonian Clergymen and Denmark during the Middle Ages 2022-01-18T09:46:12+00:00 Stefan Pajung <p>This article deals with the activities of members of the Estonian clergy in Denmark during the Middle Ages. Even though Northern Estonia was part of the Danish realm for over 120 years, and the bishopric of Reval remained part of the Danish church province until the Reformation, the subject has hitherto only has received little attention, especially when it comes to other members of the clergy than the bishops. This article thus not only deals with the eight Danish bishops in Danish Estonia, but also with monks and canons from the Duchy as well as other Livonian clerics who interacted with the Danish church and state. Through some well-documented cases, members of the Livonian clergy are shown as having played a small, but nonetheless important role not only in the ecclesiastical, but also in the political life of the Danish realm.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Stefan Pajung Bishop Gilbert of Hamar: A Norwich Cleric, Envoy and Administrator in Thirteenth-Century Norway 2022-01-18T09:55:07+00:00 Brian Ayers <p>Gilbertus Hamarensis (died 1287 and also known as Gilbertus Norvicensis ), a largely overlooked medieval ecclesiastic, is shown to have had a remarkable career: archdeacon of Shetland; chaplain to Håkon IV of Norway; envoy of the Norwegian king to Alexander III of Scotland; bishop of the Norwegian diocese of Hamar; suffragan bishop in Norfolk; probable author of theological works; possible patron of scholars; and benefactor to Carmelite friaries. His trans-North Sea career is an example of the role that senior ecclesiastics in the 13th-century could play in international diplomacy, while contributions from archaeological, architectural and art-historical sources complement and contextualise the thin documentary record. An explanation is offered for the eclipse of his undoubted contemporary fame in Norwich.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Brian Ayers "De andre findes (vden tuiill) paa Herness heller Gilleskaall" - Mellomalderbøker i Nordland i etterreformatorisk tid 2022-01-18T09:58:38+00:00 Synnøve Midtbø Myking <p>Most known book collections in medieval Norway are associated with religious institutions such as monastic houses and cathedral chapters. In the northernmost parts of Norway there were no such institutions, but we still find traces of books and book collections. The Norwegian National Archives host fragments from almost a hundred manuscripts, both in Latin and Old Norse, with a provenance from the fief of Nordland. These were used as binding support for fief and bailiwick accounts in the seventeenth century. Additionally, surviving sources testify to the presence of books in medieval Hålogaland and post-Reformation Nordland: books mentioned in wills; incunables from Trondenes; and two famous Norse manuscripts currently kept in the De La Gardie collection in Uppsala, which have a seventeenth-century provenance from Salten in Nordland, where the governor's residence was located. For the first time, all these sources are studied together in the present article, thus leading to a new understanding of which books existed in Nordland before and after the Reformation, and their fate.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Synnøve Midtbø Myking Håløygkongen Mundill den gamle og Bjørgolv- episoden i "Egils saga" 2022-01-18T10:02:55+00:00 Petter Snekkestad <p>The story of BjÇ«rgólfr's unlawful marriage with Hildiríðr in <em>Egils saga</em> is here interpreted as a send-up of the <em>hieros gamos</em> motif prevalent in Old Norse literature. Given the geographical setting, where a suitor from the southern-most magnate seat in Hálogaland married the daughter of a rich farmer from the northern-most magnate seat in Namdalen, it is argued that a lost tradition concerning Mundill gamli served as a model for the story. This underlying tradition may or may not have included the <em>hieros gamos</em> motif. Mundill features in a genealogical list dating from c. 1250 AD, which in turn presumably builds on the poem <em>Háleygjatal</em> from around c. 980-990 AD. Considering the rich tradition of erotic conquests of land in the form of female beings among the Háleygir jarls, it will be argued that Mundill in poetic terms conquered, or even 'wed', the island of Leka according to traditions possibly nurtured at the court of Lade in Trøndelag by the late 900s.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Petter Snekkestad Parchment in medieval Norway: A historical and bio-codicological approach 2022-01-18T10:06:39+00:00 Sara Östlund Nilsson Sarah Fiddyment Nina Hesselberg-Wang Espen Karlsen Chiara Palandri Tor Weidling <p>This article deals with production, use and trade of parchment in Norway through a discussion of medieval end early modern sources. We have also used biomolecular tools to extend our knowledge of the actual biological narrative of the parchment itself. Analyses of ancient proteins (eZooMS) enables us to reveal which species of animals were used for parchment production. As source material we have used documents for which a Norwegian origin is certain or likely. This is the first study in Norway to use biomolecular methods on what we believe is Norwegian produced parchment.</p> <p>All authors have commented upon the text. Östlund Nilsson, Weidling and Karlsen have edited the article and sewn the different parts together. Hesselberg-Wang took the initiative to the protein analysis. We would like to extend our heartfelt thanks to Professor emeritus James E. Knirk for advising us on the runic inscription B625 from Bergen, to Senior Archivist Gunnar I. Pettersen for his advice on medieval currencies, and to Dr. Vibeke Martens for improving our English. At last, we would like to thank the members of the Beasts 2 Craft group who so generously have placed their resources to our disposal.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Forfatterne Theodoricus: De antiquitate regum Norwagiensium / On the Old Norwegian Kings. 2022-01-18T13:00:39+00:00 Francesco D’Angelo <p>In this book, Egil Kraggerud undertakes the not easy task of giving a new standard edition of Theodoricus' De antiquitate regum Norwagensium, a late twelfth-century chronicle and one of the most important monument of the Norwegian Middle Ages. The first edition of the text, in 1880 included by Gustav Storm in his Monumenta historica Norvegiae, was in fact based on an incomplete manuscript tradition and became outdated, at least on a textual basis, after the discovery, at the beginning of the twentieth century, of two other copies unknown to Storm. Except for an English translation, published in 1998 with introduction and commentary by David and Ian MacDougall for the Viking Society, the Latin text of Theodoricus still awaited a publication on its own and Kraggerud's edition, featuring an English translation by Peter Fisher and a Norwegian translation by Kraggerud as appendix, aims exactly to fill such a gap.</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Opphavsrett 2021 Francesco D'Angelo